Publications and Resources

FIRST2ACT Publications

Cooper S. Kinsman L. Chung C. Cant R. Boyle J. Cameron A. Cash P. Connell C. Evans L. Kim JA. McKay A. McInnes D. Norman L. Rotter T. The impact of face-to-face and web-based simulation on patient deterioration and patient safety. 2017. ISBN  978-1-876851-972 (eBook) Ebook and

Simon Cooper, Leigh Kinsman, Catherine Chung, Robyn Cant, Jayne Boyle, Amanda Cameron, Penny Cash, Cliff Connell, Lisa Evans, Jeong Ah Kim, Angela McKay, Denise McInnes, Lisa Norman, Erica Penz, Thomas Rotter (2017) The impact of face-to-face and web-based simulation on patient deterioration and patient safety. (FINAL REPORT – F2A impact (V4) ISBN 978-1-876851-972 (eBook))

Simon Cooper, Alison Beauchamp, Fiona Bogossian, Tracey Bucknall, Robyn Cant, Brett DeVries, Ruth Endacott, Helen Forbes, Robyn Hill, Leigh Kinsman, Victoria Kain, Lisa McKenna, Jo Porter, Nicole Phillips, Susan Young (2014) Managing patient deterioration: enhancing nursing students’ competence through web-based simulation and feedback techniques (Download Final Report PDF)

Cooper S, Cant C, Chung C and the First2Act Impact Team. (2020) The impact of emerging simulation-based technologies on the management of deteriorating patients. Aiming for a gold standard educational evaluation:  – Clinical Simulation in Nursing. 45; p50-59

Kinsman L. Cooper S. Champion R. Kim JA. Boyle J. Cameron A. Cant R. Chung C. Connell C. Evans. L. McInnes D. McKay A. Norman L. Penz E. Rana M. Rotter T. (2021) The impact of web-based and face-to-face simulation education programs on nurses’ response to patient deterioration” A multi-site interrupted time series study. Nurse Education Today. 102; 104939

Sapiano, A. B., Sammut, R., & Trapani, J. (2018). The effectiveness of virtual simulation in improving student nurses’ knowledge and performance during patient deterioration: a pre and post test design. Nurse Education Today, 62, 128-133,

Simon J. Cooper, Ruben Hopmans, Robyn P. Cant, Fiona Bogossian, Anita Giannis, Rosey King, Deteriorating Patients: Global Reach and Impact of an E-Simulation Program, Clinical Simulation in Nursing, Volume 13, Issue 11, November 2017, Pages 562-572, ISSN 1876-1399, (Download article)

Bogossian F, Cooper S, Cant R, Beauchamp A, Kain V, Porter J, Bucknall T, Phillips M, the FIRST2ACTTM Research Team. (2014). Undergraduate nursing students’ performance in recognising and responding to sudden patient deterioration in high fidelity simulated environments: Quantitative results from an Australian multi-centre study. Nurse Education Today, 34 (5): 691-696.

Bogossian FE, Cooper SJ, Cant R, Porter J, Forbes H; The First2ActTM team. A trial of e-simulation of sudden patient deterioration (FIRST2ACT WEB™) on student learning. (2015). Nurse Education Today, 35(10):e36-42. DOI:

Buykx P, Cooper S, Kinsman L, Endacott R, Scholes J, McConnell-Henry T, Cant R. (2012). Patient deterioration simulation experiences: impact on teaching and learning. Collegian, 19 (3): 125-129.

Buykx P, Kinsman L, Cooper S, McConnell-Henry T, Cant R, Endacott R, Scholes J. (2011). FIRST2ACT: Educating nurses to identify patient deterioration – a theory-based model for best practice simulation education. Nurse Education Today, 31(7): 687-693.

Buykx P. (2011) Dummy Run: Simulation based education is helping students improve management of patient deterioration. Nursing Standard, 07/10/11 11:42 Page 64.

Cant R, Young S, Cooper SJ, Porter J. (2015). E-simulation: pre-registration nursing students’ evaluation of an on-line patient deterioration program. Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 3(3):108-114. doi: 10.1097/CIN.0000000000000133

Cooper S, Cant R, Bogossian F, Kinsman L, Bucknall T, and the FIRST2ACT research team. (2015). Patient deterioration education: Evaluation of face-to-face simulation and e-simulation approaches. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 11(2): 97-105.

Cooper S, Beauchamp A, Bogossian F, Bucknall T, Cant R, DeVries B, Endacott R, Forbes H, Hill R, Kinsman L, Kain V, McKenna L, Porter J, Phillips N, Young S. (2012). Managing patient deterioration: A protocol for enhancing undergraduate nursing students’ competence through web-based simulation and feedback techniques. BMC Nursing, 11:18. Available at:

Cooper S, Kinsman L, Chung C, Cant R, Boyle J, Bull L, Cameron A, Connell C, Kim JA, McInnes D, McKay A, Nankervis K, Penz E, Rotter T. (2016). The impact of web-based and face-to-face simulation on patient deterioration and patient safety: protocol for a multi-site multi-method design. BMC Health Services Research, 16(1): 475. doi 10.1186/s12913-016-1683-0.

Cooper S, Bulle B, Biro MA, Jones J, Miles M, Gilmour C, Buykx P, Boland R, Kinsman L, Scholes J, Endacott R. (2012). Managing women with acute physiological deterioration: student midwives performance in a simulated setting. Women and Birth, 25(3): e27-e36.

Simon Cooper, Alison Beauchamp, Fiona Bogossian, Tracey Bucknall, Robyn Cant, Brett DeVries, Ruth Endacott, Helen Forbes, Robyn Hill, Leigh Kinsman, Victoria Kain, Lisa McKenna, Jo Porter, Nicole Phillips, Susan Young. Managing Patient Deterioration: Enhancing Nursing Students’ Competence Through Web-Based Simulation and Feedback Techniques. [Final report] Sydney, Australian Government Office of Learning and Teaching, 2014. Available at:

Cooper S, Cant R, Porter J, Missen K, Sparkes L, McConnell-Henry T, Endacott R. (2013). Managing patient deterioration: assessing teamwork and individual performance. Emergency Medicine Journal, 30: 377-381.

Cooper S, Kinsman L, Buykx P, McConnell-Henry T, Endacott R, Scholes J. (2010). Managing the deteriorating patient in a simulated environment: nursing students’ knowledge, skill, and situation awareness. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19(15): 2309-2318. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.03164.x

Cooper S, McConnell-Henry T, Cant R, Porter J, Missen K, Kinsman L, Endacott R, Scholes J. (2011). Managing deteriorating patients: Registered nurses’ performance in a simulated setting. The Open Nursing Journal, 5: 120-126. Available at:

Endacott R, Scholes J, Buykx P, Cooper S, Scholes J, Kinsman L, McConnell-Henry T. (2010). Final-year nursing students’ ability to assess, detect and act on clinical cues of deterioration in a simulated environment. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(12), 2722–2731. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05417.x

Endacott R, Scholes J, Cooper S, McConnell-Henry T, Porter J, Missen K, Kinsman L, Champion R. (2012). Identifying patient deterioration: using simulation and reflective review to examine decision making skills in a rural hospital. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49(6): 710-717. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05417.x

Kinsman L, Buykx P, Cant R, Champion R, Cooper S, Endacott R, McConnell-Henry T, Missen K, Porter J, Scholes J. (2012). The First2Act simulation program improves nursing practice in a rural Australian hospital. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 20(5): 270-274.DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1584.2012.01296.x

Missen K, Sparkes L, Porter J, Cooper S, McConnell-Henry T. (2013). Developing team based acute care scenarios: a rural hospital experience. International Emergency Nursing, 21: 186-189.

Scholes J, Endacott R, Biro MA, Bulle B, Cooper S, Miles M, Gilmour C, Buykx P, Kinsman L, Boland R, Jones J, Zaidi F. (2012). Clinical decision-making: midwifery students’ recognition of, and response to, post partum haemorrhage in the simulation environment. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 12:19. Available at:

FIRST2ACT Citations

(citations collected to February 2017)

Aas L, Ouchterlony M, Djärv T. (2014). Nurse documentation in deteriorating patients prior to in-hospital cardiac arrest—a pilot study in A Swedish University Hospital. Journal of Health Science, 2:330-337. Available at:

Alinier G, Platt, A. (2014). International overview of high-level simulation education initiatives in relation to critical care. Nursing in Critical Care, 19(1): 42-49. DOI:10.1111/nicc.12030

Andrews T. (2016). Analysis of Rater Reliability Using a Faculty Developed, Revised OSCE Evaluation Instrument. (Doctoral dissertation) University of Texas at Arlington.

Azimirad M, Karjalainen M. (2016). The functioning of a Medical Emergency Team at a Finnish Hospital: A quantitative, retrospective study for quality improvement. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 9(3):744. Available at:

Bailey TC, Chen Y, Mao Y, Lu C, Hackmann G, Micek ST, Heard KM, Faulkner KM, Kollef MH. (2013). A trial of a real-time Alert for clinical deterioration in patients hospitalized on general medical wards. Journal of Hospital Medicine. 8(5):236-242. DOI: 10.1002/jhm.2009
Baptista RC, Paiva LA, Gonçalves RF, Oliveira LM, Maria de Fátima CR, Martins J.C. (2016). Satisfaction and gains perceived by nursing students with medium and high-fidelity simulation: A randomized controlled trial. Nurse Education Today, 46:127-132.

Bell-Gordon C, Gigliotti E, Mitchell K. (2014). An evidence-based practice project for recognition of clinical deterioration: Utilization of simulation-based education. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 4(6):69. Available at:

Blackburn LM, Sherri Harkless MS. (2014). Using failure-to-rescue simulation to assess the performance of advanced practice professionals. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 18(3):301.

Bland AJ, Topping A, Tobbell J. (2014). Time to unravel the conceptual confusion of authenticity and fidelity and their contribution to learning within simulation-based nurse education. A discussion paper. Nurse Education Today, 34(7): 1112-1118.

Cant R, Cooper S. The time is right for Web-based clinical simulation programs in nursing education. (2015). Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 5 (11): 113-119. Available at:

Cant RP, Cooper SJ. Simulation in the Internet Age: The place of Web-based simulation in nursing education. An integrative review. (2014). Nurse Education Today, 34: 1435-1442. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2014.08.001

Cooper S, Cant RP, Bogossian F, Bucknall T, Hopmans R. (2015). Doing the right thing at the right time: Assessing responses to patient deterioration in electronic simulation scenarios using Course-of-Action analysis. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 33(5), pp.199-207. doi: 10.1097/CIN.0000000000000141

Cooper SJ, Biro MA. (2014). Managing maternal deterioration. In Simulated Patient Methodology: Theory, Evidence and Practice, 120-5. (Nestel D, Bearman M, Eds) DOI: 10.1002/9781118760673.ch17

Corey PJ. (2016). The Effectiveness of Adult and Pediatric Code Blue Simulation-Based Team Trainings. (EdD dissertation) At:

Cormier EM, Whyte IVJ. (2016). Comparison of second-degree and traditional baccalaureate nursing students’ performance in managing acute patient deterioration events. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice. 12;6(8):138. Available at:

Day T, Oxton J. (2014). The National Early Warning Score in practice: a reflection. British Journal of Nursing, 23(19).

Dearnley C, McClelland GT, Irving D. (2013). Innovation in teaching and learning in health higher education. [literature review] The Higher Education Academy, London. Available at:

Edgecombe K, Seaton P, Monahan K, Meyer S, LePage S, Erlam G. (2013). Clinical Simulation in Nursing: A Literature Review and Guidelines for Practice. [Report] Aotearoa: AKO National Centre for Tertiary Teaching Excellence. Available at:

Elder L. (2015). Simulation in Assisting Nurses to Better Recognize Early Signs of Clinical Deterioration of Patients. [Doctoral dissertation) Kentucky University, USA. Available at:

Endacott R, Bogossian FE, Cooper SJ, Forbes H, Kain VJ, Young SC, Porter JE. (2015). Leadership and teamwork in medical emergencies: performance of nursing students and registered nurses in simulated patient scenarios. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 24(1-2): 90-100. DOI: 10.1111/jocn.12611

Erlam GD, Clair WS. (2016). Six steps to coaching Oscar performances from under-graduate nursing students in simulation: An action research study. [conference presentation] Sep 26, Sim Health Conference, Australia.

Fisher D, King L, (2013). An integrative literature review on preparing nursing students through simulation to recognize and respond to the deteriorating patient. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(11): 2375-2388. DOI: 10.1111/jan.12174

Melanie Fisher, Margaret Scott (Eds). Patient Safety and Managing Risk in Nursing. The Dorset Press, Dorchester UK, 2013.

Franklin AE, Lee CS. (2014). Effectiveness of simulation for improvement in self-efficacy among novice nurses: a meta-analysis. Journal of Nursing Education, 53(11): 607-614. DOI: 10.3928/01484834-20141023-03

Gallagher P, Traynor M. (2012). Does an Immediate Life Support (ILS) course enhance clinical practice? The students’ perceptions. Nurse Education Today, 32(5):594-599.

George A, Khora T, Das P, Rao PS. (2013). Nursing interventions to manage anxiety levels of female inpatients admitted first time in a leprosy hospital. Indian Journal of Leprosy, 85(1):19.

Hart PL, Spiva L, Baio P, Huff B, Whitfield D, Law T, Wells T, Mendoza IG. (2014). Medical‐surgical nurses’ perceived self-confidence and leadership abilities as first responders in acute patient deterioration events. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 23(19-20):2769-2778. DOI: 10.1111/jocn.12523

Hartgerink JM, Cramm JM, de Vos AJ, Bakker TJ, Steyerberg EW, Mackenbach JP, Nieboer AP. (2014). Situational awareness, relational coordination and integrated care delivery to hospitalized elderly in The Netherlands: a comparison between hospitals. BMC Geriatrics. 14(1):3. DOI:10.1186/1471-2318-14-3 Available at:

Harvey EM, Echols SR, Clark R, Lee E. (2014). Comparison of two TeamSTEPPS® Training Methods on nurse failure-to-rescue performance. Clinical Simulation in Nursing. 10(2):e57-64.

Heily M. (2014). Ready to work?: Does a simulation education program improve the competence of final year medical students to perform common invasive procedures?[masters thesis] Available at:

Hogg G, Miller D. (2016). The effects of an enhanced simulation programme on medical students’ confidence responding to clinical deterioration. BMC Medical Education, 16(1): 161. DOI:10.1186/s12909-016-0685-2 Available at:

Innocenti F, Angeli E, Alesi A, Scorpiniti M, Pini R. Teamwork evaluation during emergency medicine residents’ high-fidelity simulation. BMJ Simulation and Technology Enhanced Learning, 2016 Feb 1;2(1):12-18.

Jones A, Johnstone MJ. (2016). Inattentional blindness and failures to rescue the deteriorating patient in critical care, emergency and perioperative settings: Four case scenarios. Australian Critical Care. [in press]

Jones A. (2013). Patient safety and gaps management by registered nurses (PhD dissertation). School of Nursing and Midwifery, Deakin University, Australia.

Kadhim JJ. (2013). Comparing the Effectiveness of Debriefing Methods in High Fidelity Simulation in a Nursing Baccalaureate Program. [Masters thesis]

Kelly MA. (2014). Investigating the use of simulations in enhancing clinical judgement of students to practice as registered nurses. (Doctoral dissertation) Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney. Available at:

Lavoie P, Pepin J, Cossette S. (2015). Development of a post-simulation debriefing intervention to prepare nurses and nursing students to care for deteriorating patients. Nurse Education in Practice, 15(3):181-191.

Lavoie P, Cossette S, Pepin J. (2016). Testing nursing students’ clinical judgment in a patient deterioration simulation scenario: Development of a situation awareness instrument. Nurse Education Today. 38:61-7.

LeFlore JL, Thomas PE. (2016). Educational changes to support advanced practice nursing education. The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing, 30(3):187. doi: 10.1097/JPN.0000000000000201

Liaw SY, Wong LF, Chan SWC, Ho JTY, Mordiffi SZ, Ang SBL, Goh PS, Ang ENK. (2015). Designing and evaluating an interactive multimedia Web-based simulation for developing nurses’ competencies in acute nursing care: randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 17(1). doi:10.2196/jmir.3853

Liaw SY, Wong LF, Chan SWC, Ho JTY, Mordiffi SZ, Ang SBL, Goh PS, Ang ENK. (2015). Correction: Designing and Evaluating an Interactive Multimedia Web-Based Simulation for Developing Nurses’ Competencies in Acute Nursing Care: Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 17(3). doi: 10.2196/jmir.4419

Liaw SY, Wong LF, Lim EYP, Ang SBL, Mujumdar S, Ho JTY, Mordiffi SZ, Ang ENK. (2016). Effectiveness of a Web-based simulation in improving nurses’ workplace practice with deteriorating ward patients: a pre- and post intervention study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 18 (2): e37. Doi:10.2196/jmir.5294.

Lucas AN. (2014). Promoting continuing competence and confidence in nurses through high-fidelity simulation-based learning. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing. 45(8):360-365. DOI: 10.3928/00220124-20140716-02

Luctkar-Flude M, Tyerman J, Wilson-Keates B, Pulling C, Larocque M, Yorke J. (2015). introduction of unresponsive patient simulation scenarios into an undergraduate nursing health assessment course. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(5):281-285. DOI: 10.3928/01484834-20150417-06

Lyons R, Lazzara EH, Benishek LE, Zajac S, Gregory M, Sonesh SC, Salas, E. (2015). Enhancing the effectiveness of team debriefings in medical simulation: More best practices. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 41(3), 115-125.

Maignan M, Koch FX, Chaix J, Phellouzat P, Binauld G, Muret RC, Cooper SJ, Labarère J, Danel V, Viglino D, Debaty G. (2016). Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) for the assessment of non-technical skills during resuscitation: Validation of the French version. Resuscitation, 101:115-120.

Martins JCA, Coutinho VR, Baptista RC, Oliveira LM, Gonçalves RF, Paiva LA, Mazzo A, Rodrigues MA, Mendes IA. (2016). Impact of a simulated practice program in the construction of self-confidence for intervention in emergencies and its association with knowledge and performance. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 7(1):45. Available at:

Massey D, Chaboyer W, Anderson V. (2017). What factors influence ward nurses’ recognition of and response to patient deterioration? An integrative review of the literature. Nursing Open. 4(1):6-23. DOI: 10.1002/nop2.53 Available at:

McConnell-Henry T, Cooper S, Endacott R, Porter J, Missen K, Sparks L. (2015). Designing a medical records review tool: an instructional guide. Contemporary Nurse, 50(1):72-79.

Merriman CD, Stayt LC, Ricketts B. (2014). Comparing the effectiveness of clinical simulation versus didactic methods to teach undergraduate adult nursing students to recognize and assess the deteriorating patient. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 10(3): e119-e127.

Mihaljevic SE, Howard VM. (2016). incorporating interprofessional evidenced-based sepsis simulation education for certified nursing assistants (CNAS) and licensed care providers within long-term care settings for process and quality improvement. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 39(1):24-33.

Natarajan MJR, Al-Khasawneh EM, Bartlett JL. (2016). Simulation in nursing education: faculty and prelicensure BSN student perspectives–an integrated review. International Educational Scientific Research Journal, 2(6).

O’Leary J, Nash R, Lewis P. (2016). Standard instruction versus simulation: Educating registered nurses in the early recognition of patient deterioration in paediatric critical care. Nurse Education Today, 36: 287-292. Doi:

O’Leary JA. (2015). Recognising paediatric deterioration in a simulated environment. (Doctoral dissertation) Brisbane Australia: Queensland University of Technology.

Omer T. (2016). Nursing students’ perceptions of satisfaction and self-confidence with clinical simulation experience. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(5): 131-138.

O’Meara P, Munro G, Williams B, Cooper S, Bogossian F, Ross L, Sparkes L, Browning M, McClounan M. (2015). Developing situation awareness amongst nursing and paramedicine students utilizing eye tracking technology and video debriefing techniques: a proof of concept paper. International Emergency Nursing, 23(2): 94-99.

Ozekcin LR, Tuite P, Willner K, Hravnak M. (2015). Simulation education: early identification of patient physiologic deterioration by acute care nurses. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 29(3): 166-173. Doi: 10.1097/NUR.0000000000000123

Patterson C, Procter N, Toffoli L. (2016).Situation awareness: when nurses decide to admit or not admit a person with mental illness as an involuntary patient. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 72(9):2042-2053. DOI: 10.1111/jan.13024

Poikela P, Teras M. (2015). A scoping review: conceptualizations and pedagogical models of learning in nursing simulation. Educational Research and Reviews, 10(8): 1023-1033. Doi: 10.5897/ERR2015.2156 Available at:

Przybyl H, Androwich I, Evans J. (2015). Using high-fidelity simulation to assess knowledge, skills, and attitudes in nurses performing CRRT. Nephrology Nursing Journal. 42(2):135.

Reierson IÅ, Hvidsten A, Wighus M, Brungot S, Bjørk IT. (2013). Key issues and challenges in developing a pedagogical intervention in the simulation skills center–an action research study. Nurse Education in Practice, 13(4): 294-300.

Rutherford-Hemming T, Alfes CM. The Use of Hospital-Based Simulation in Nursing Education—A Systematic Review. (2017). Clinical Simulation in Nursing. 13(2):78-89.

Sedgwick M, Pijl-Zieber EM. New rural acute care nurses speak up:“We’re it” but We’re not ready. (2015). Journal for Nurses in Professional Development, 31(5):278-283. doi: 10.1097/NND.0000000000000188

Seright TJ, Winters CA. (2015). Critical Care in Critical Access Hospitals. Critical Care Nurse. 35(5):62-7.

Shinners J. Africa L, Hawkes B. (2016). Debriefing as a supportive component for registered nurses in transition. Journal for Nurses in Professional Development, 32(4): 212-218. Doi: 10.1097/NND.0000000000000273

Sparkes L, Chan MMK, Cooper S, Pang MTH, Tiwari, A. (2016). Enhancing the management of deteriorating patients with Australian on line e-simulation software: Acceptability, transferability, and impact in Hong Kong. Nursing & Health Sciences, 18(3): 393-399. DOI: 10.1111/nhs.12282

Stayt LC, Merriman C, Ricketts B, Morton S, Simpson T. (2015). Recognizing and managing a deteriorating patient: a randomized controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of clinical simulation in improving clinical performance in undergraduate nursing students. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 71(11): 2563-2574. Doi: 10.1111/jan.12722

Traynor M, Rice B, Lynn F, Galanouli D, Martin F, Devlin A. (2015). A study to evaluate the introduction of simulation as a teaching strategy for the mental health and learning disability fields of nursing in an undergraduate nursing curriculum within one higher education institution in the UK. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 5(3), p.50. Available at:

Unsworth J, Melling A, Allan J, Tucker G, Kelleher M. (2014). Assessing human factors during simulation: The development and preliminary validation of the rescue assessment tool. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 4(5): 52. Available at:

Williams E, Palmer C. (2014). Student nurses in critical care: benefits and challenges of critical care as a learning environment for student nurses. Nursing in Critical Care, 19(6):310-315. DOI: 10.1111/nicc.12053

Zarifsanaiey N, Amini M, Saadat F. (2016). A comparison of educational strategies for the acquisition of nursing student’s performance and critical thinking: simulation-based training vs. integrated training (simulation and critical thinking strategies). BMC Medical Education, 16(1):294. Available at:

Clinical Simulation

Bosek, M, Li S, et al. (2007). Working with standardized patients: a primer. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship 4(1): 1-12.

Brewster LP, Risucci DA, et al. (2005). Management of adverse surgical events: a structured education module for residents. American Journal of Surgery, 190(5): 687.

Cant R, Cooper SJ. The benefits of debriefing as formative feedback in nurse education. (2011). Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 29(1): 37-47. Open access At:

Cant R, Cooper S. (2010). Simulation-based learning in nurse education: systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(1): 3-15.

Cantrell M, Deloney L. (2007). Integration of standardized patients into simulation. Anaesthesiolgy Clinics, 25: 378-383.

Cioffi, J. (2001). Clinical simulations: development and validation. Nurse Education Today, 21(6): 477-486.

Cooper S, Cant R, Ryan C. (2021) Learning in a virtual world: The emergence of screen based clinical simulation. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Journal ANMJ Oct-Dec 27, 5 p54

Cooper S, Cant R, Porter J, Bogossian F, McKenna L, Brady S, Fox-Young S. (2011). Simulation based learning in midwifery education: a systematic review. Women and Birth, 25: 64-78. doi:10.1016/j.wombi.2011.03.004

Cooper S, Buykx P, McConnell-Henry T, Kinsman L, McDermott S. (2011). Simulation: can it eliminate failure to rescue. Nursing Times, 107(3): Jan 25-31.

Cooper S, Kinsman L, Buykx P, McConnell-Henry T, Endacott R, Scholes J. (2010) Managing the deteriorating patient in a simulated environment: nursing students’ knowledge, skill, and situation awareness. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19(15), 2309-2318. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.03164.x

Cooper S, Kinsman L, Chung C, Cant R, Boyle J, Bull L, Cameron A, Connell C, Kim JA, McInnes D, McKay A, Nankervis K, Penz E, Rotter T. (2016). The impact of web-based and face-to-face simulation on patient deterioration and patient safety: protocol for a multi-site multi-method design. BMC Health Services Research, 16:475. doi 10.1186/s12913-016-1683-0.

Endacott R, Cooper S, Scholes J, Kinsman L, McConnell-Henry T. (2010). Final-year nursing students’ ability to assess, detect and act on clinical cues of deterioration in a simulated environment. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(12): 2722–2731. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05417.x

Fox-Young S, Brady S, Brealy W, Cooper S, McKenna L, Hall H, Bogossian F. (2012). The perspectives of Australian midwifery academics on barriers and enablers for simulation in midwifery education in Australia: a focus group study Midwifery, 28: 435-441.

Fritz P, Flanagan B. (2008). Review of mannequin-based high fidelity simulation in emergency medicine. Emergency Medicine Australia, 20: 1-9.

Haydon RI, Donnelly M, et al. (1994). Use of standardized patients to identify deficits in student performance and curriculum effectiveness. American Journal of Surgery, 168(1): 57-65.

McCallum J. (2007). The debate in favour of using simulation education in pre-registration adult nursing. Nurse Education Today, 27: 825-831.

McKenna L, Cooper S. et al. (2011). Is simulation a substitute for real life clinical experience in midwifery? A qualitative examination of the perceptions of educational leaders. Nurse Education Today, 31(7): 682-686.

McKenna L, Missen K, Cooper S, Bogossian F, Bucknall T, Cant R. (2014). Situation awareness in undergraduate nursing students managing simulated patient deterioration. Nurse Education Today, 34(6), e27-e31.

Smith G, Osgood V, et al. (2002). ALERT™ – a multi-professional training course in the care of the acutely ill adult patient. Resuscitation, 52: 281-286.

Wiseman J, Snell L. (2008). The deteriorating patient: a realistic but ‘low tech’ simulation of emergency decision making. The Clinical Teacher, 5: 93-97.

Wright MC, Taekman J, et al. (2004). Objective measures of situation awareness in a simulated medical environment. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 13 (Suppl. 1): 165-171.

Ziv A, Ben-David, S, et al. (2005). Simulation based medical education: an opportunity to learn from errors. Medical Teacher, 27(3): 193-199.

Team work

Anderson N, West M. (1998). Measuring climate for work group innovation: development and validation of the team climate inventory. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19(3): 235-258.

Cant RP, Porter JE, Cooper SJ, Roberts K, Wilson I, Gartside C. (2016). Improving the non-technical skills of hospital medical emergency teams: the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM™). Emergency Medicine Australasia, 28(6): 641-646. doi: 10.1111/1742-6723.12643

Cooper S, Cant R, Sellick K, Porter J, Somers G, Kinsman L, Nestel D. (2010). Rating medical emergency teamwork performance: development of the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM). Resuscitation, 81. 446-452. DOI:

Cooper S, Cant R, Connell C, Sims L, Porter J, Symmons M, Nestel D, Liaw SY. (2016). Measuring teamwork performance: Validity testing of the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) with clinical resuscitation teams. Resuscitation; 101: 97-101.

Recognising and managing patient deterioration

Ahern J, Philpot P. (2002). Assessing acutely ill patients on general wards. Nursing Standard, 16(47): 47.

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. Recognising and Responding to Clinical Deterioration. [report online] Sydney, Australia: ACSQHC. Available at:

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care: Quick-start guide to implementing National Safety and Quality Health Service Standard 9: Recognising and Responding to Clinical Deterioration in Acute Health Care. Sydney ACSQHC: 2012.

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Healthcare: Consensus statement: Essential elements for recognising and responding to clinical deterioration. Canberra: ACSQH: 2010.$File/national_consensus_statement.pdf

NICE Short Clinical Guidelines Technical Team. (2006). Acutely Ill Patients In Hospital: Recognition Of And Response To Acute Illness In Adults In Hospital. London: NICE, 2006.

Clinical decision-making

Bond S, Cooper S. (2006). Modelling emergency decisions; recognition primed decision making. the literature in relation to an ophthalmic critical incident. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 15: 1023-1032.

Bucknall TK, Forbes H, et al. (2016). An analysis of nursing students’ decision-making in teams during simulations of acute patient deterioration. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 72(10): 2482-2494. doi:10.1111/jan.13009

Cioffi J. (2000). Nurses’ experiences of making decisions to call emergency assistance to their patients. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 32(1): 108-114.

Cioffi J. (2001). A study of the use of past experiences in clinical decision making in emergency situations. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 38(5): 591-599.

Connell CJ, Endacott R, Jackman JA, Kiprillis NR, Sparkes LM, Cooper SJ. (2016). The effectiveness of education in the recognition and management of deteriorating patients: A systematic review. Nurse Education Today, 44, 133-145. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2016.06.001

Kitto S, Marshall SD, McMillan SE, Shearer B, Buist M, Grant R, Wilson S. (2015). Rapid response systems and collective (in)competence: An exploratory analysis of intraprofessional and interprofessional activation factors. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 29 (4), 340. doi:10.3109/13561820.2014.984021

Patel V, Groen G. (1986). Knowledge based solution strategies in medical reasoning. Cognitive Science, 10: 91-116.


Aiken LH, Clarke SP, et al. (2002). Hospital nurse staffing and patient mortality, nurse burnout, and job dissatisfaction. JAMA, 288(16): 1987-1993. doi:10.1001/jama.288.16.1987

Cooper S, Janghorbani M, et al. (2006). A decade of in-hospital resuscitation: Outcomes and prediction of survival. Resuscitation, 68: 231-237.

Draycott T, Sibanda T, et al. (2006). Does training in obstetric emergencies improve neonatal outcome? BJOG, 113: 177-182.

Harrison GA, Jacques TC, Kilborn G, McLaws ML. (2005). The prevalence of recordings of the signs of critical conditions and emergency responses in hospital wards—the SOCCER study. Resuscitation, 65(2):149-157.

Liaw SY, Chan SW, Scherpbier A, Rethans J-J, Pua GG. (2012). Recognizing, responding to and reporting patient deterioration: Transferring simulation learning to patient care settings. Resuscitation, 83 (3), 395-398. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2011.08.021.

Liaw SY, Wong LF, Lim EYP, Ang SBL, Mujumdar S, Ho JTY, Mordiffi SZ, Ang ENK. (2016). Effectiveness of a Web-based simulation in improving nurses’ workplace practice with deteriorating ward patients: a pre- and post intervention study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 18 (2): e37. doi:10.2196/jmir.5294.

McQuillan P, Pilkington S, et al. (1998). Confidential inquiry into quality of care before admission to intensive care. BMJ, 316(7148): 1853-1858.

Measurement tools

Cooper S, Duncan F. (2007). Reliability testing and update of the Resuscitation Predictor Scoring (RPS) Scale. Resuscitation, 74: 253-258.

Cooper S, Cant R, Sellick K, Porter J, Somers G, Kinsman L, Nestel D. (2010) Rating medical emergency teamwork performance: development of the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM). Resuscitation, 81: 446-452.

Cooper S, Endacott R, Cant R. (2010) Measuring non-technical skills in medical emergency care: a review of assessment measures. Open Access Emergency Medicine, 2: 7-16.

Cooper SJ, Cant RP. (2014). Measuring non-technical skills of medical emergency teams: an update on the validity and reliability of the Team Emergency Assessment Measure. Resuscitation, 85(1), 31-33.


Endacott R. Jevon P. Cooper S (Eds) (2009) Adult Clinical Skills Nursing Skills. Oxford. Oxford University Press, 2009.